Air Defense History: The MIM-23 HAWK missile

The Raytheon MIM-23 HAWK is an American medium range surface-to-air missile. As a backronym, some consider HAWK to stand for Homing All the Way Killer. The HAWK was initially designed to destroy aircraft and was later adapted to destroy other missiles in flight. The missile entered service in 1960, and a program of extensive upgrades has kept it from becoming obsolete. It was superseded by the MIM-104 Patriot in United States Army service by 1994. It was finally phased out of US service in 2002, the last users, the US Marine Corps replacing it with the man-portable ir-guided visual range FIM-92 Stinger. The missile was also produced outside the US in Western Europe and Japan.

MIM-23 Hawk, Wikipeida

Hawk Missiles on an M113 chassis

Hawk Missiles on an M113 chassis

Forgotten by the general public, Hawk was one of two missile systems the US Army had in Europe to stop the Soviet Air Force. Semi-Active radar homing would guide the missile to it target. The missile received signals from a ground based fire-control radar and used that to hit the target. Development started in 1952, by 1959 the Army had it’s first units, the Marines in 1960.

Of course the system used vacuum tubes back then. The first upgrades gave it solid-state technology. The mean-time between failure rates went from 43 hours in the 50’s, to over 300 at the turn of the century. Many other improvements happened.

US Army diagram of the HAWK system in action

US Army diagram of the HAWK system in action

The MIM-23A had a basic warhead of 54 kilograms, and over 4,000 eight gram frags. It was a giant shotgun shell against jets and helicopters. The MIM-23B I-HAWK (Improved HAWK) had a 74 kg warhead and 14,000 frags. A new motor improved performance. By 1971 all HAWKS were I-HAWKS. That’s all well and good, but that warhead is nothing if the missile can’t see it’s target.

Firing a HAWK missile.

Firing a HAWK missile.

Electronic warfare bloomed at vacuum tubes gave way to solid state. The USSR had experience jamming western propaganda broadcasts during the 50’s and 60’s. The war in Vietnam and the Arab-Israeli wars honed their expertise. As a result MIM-23 models C-M were developed all the way until 1997. There is speculation that home-on-jam was added to the D-models (the missiles would home in on a jamming aircraft, killing it). The K-M models had a bigger warhead with 30 gram frags.

The radars got upgrades to:

PAR radar

PAR radar

Early high power illuminator/tracker radar

Early high power illuminator/tracker radar

The original HAWK system used 4 radars: to detect (PAR and CWAR), to track (CWAR and HPIR) and to engage (HPIR and ROR) targets. As the system was upgraded the functionality of some of the radars was merged. The final iteration of the system consists of only 2 radars, an enhanced phased array search radar and an engagement radar (HPIR).

The Army’s goal was to reduce the maintenance of the system. Having 4 radars means that you have four times the things that can go wrong in the field. As the system improved, the radars got better. The last radars were the AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel and a high power illuminator.

AN-MPQ-64 Sentinel Radar

AN-MPQ-64 Sentinel Radar

High power illuminator/tracker radar

High power illuminator/tracker radar

HAWK fought several battles in the Cold War. It was in Florida during the Cuban Missile Crisis, with 304 missiles defending American Soil. The Arab-Israeli was saw:
an Israeli MIM-23A shot down a damaged Israeli Dassault MD.450 that was in danger of crashing into the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona, the first combat firing of the HAWK, and it’s first kill. During the 1969 War of Attrition, HAWK batteries had shot down between 8 and 12 Arab aircraft . During the 1973 Yom Kippur war, 75 Israeli missiles wdowned between 12 and 24 aircraft. Kuwait shot down one Iranian F-5 during the Iran-Iraq war. The French army in Chad shot down a Libyan Tu-22B in 1987. During Desert Storm, US Army and Marine HAWK units defended Saudi Arabia. White Stands Missile range tested an anti-Scud variant of the missile as the 1990’s came to a close.

HAWK Versus LANCE Impact

HAWK Versus LANCE Impact

All in all HAWK was used by the following: Bahrain, Belgium, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain,
Sweden, Republic of China (Taiwan), Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. Training for the missile was done at Fort Bliss. Like Nike, many soldiers from other nations would come to Fort Bliss to train on HAWK. The German Air Force even had a school at Bliss to train their officers.

The system has been phased out of U.S. service for some time. Most NATO countries don’t have it anymore, but countries like Japan, UAE and Israel still use it. Today the Army uses the Avenger system.

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68 Responses to “Air Defense History: The MIM-23 HAWK missile”

  1. [...] Air Defense History: The MIM-23 HAWK missile « Chockblock's blog [...]

  2. Jerrold Hudson Says:

    I beleive your reference of White Stands Missile Range should be White Sands Missile Range.

  3. SGT Ronald Mercer Says:

    I RECEIVED MY TRAINING ON THE HAWK RADAR SYSTEMS AT REDSTONE ARSENAL DURING THE SPRING OF 1967.

  4. SGT Ronald Mercer Says:

    I RECEIVED MY TRAINING ON THE HAWK RADAR SYSTEMS AT REDSTONE ARSENAL DURING THE SPRING OF 1967. I WAS THEN ATTACHED TO HQ 62nd Artillary 32 nd AADCOM ASCHAFFENBURG , GRMANY

  5. Sgt. G. A. Kaisert Says:

    I received my HAWK Training as a 16D at Fort Bliss in 1973. Assigned to Alpha Battery, First Battalion, First Aid Defense Artillery, 10 Group, 32nd AADCOM, stationed in Bad Kissingen, West Germany from Apr. 1973 to Oct. 1977. Member of highest scoring team in NATO Evaluation on Crete, 1975

  6. Jim Stutts Says:

    I received my HAWK training at Fort Bliss in 1992. Went to Yuma AZ for three years. Yuma gets a bad rap. Summers were hot but the rest of the year was awesome! I love the desert, though running and humping in sand can get on your nerves. Left in 1996 for security forces training and they eventually did away with HAWK in the Marines from what I understand. A shame considering all the successful TBM shoots we did just prior to me leaving. I’ll always miss it and my brothers!

  7. I received my IHAWK traing at Redstone Arsenal in 1977 and 1978. I was with 30th Ord (Korea), 13th Ord (Bliss), 2/57 (Germany), 1/1 (Germany) and 166th Ord (Hood). I stayed in HAWK until 1994, when they moved everything to the ARNG.

    We always said that HAWK stood for Holiday And Weekend Killer.

  8. John Mayfield Says:

    Do you know what two batteries of the 2d/1st ADA at Fort Bliss were the last battiers to have HAWK missiles in 1994?

  9. Don Smith Says:

    I originally went through HAWK school at Redstone in 67/68 as a 23T20 CW Radar repair. In 72, while a Basic HAWK instructor, I was in the first class of Basic Hawk Ordnance types to transition to to Improved HAWK. Shortly after graduation, I PCSed to a DSP in Wurzburg. Left the Army in 76 while an instructor in basic electronics (computer team) at Redstone.

    joe is right, HAWK killed more holidays and weekends than I care to remember,

    • Don,
      I was a 23q20 at the Wurzburg DSP in ’69 to ’71. I have been back to Wurzburg twice, ’85 & ’06. I was sad to see the old DSP building was leveled on my last visit. Also, most of Hindenberg Kassern was gone, too. By any chance do you have any photos that you took there back in the early ’70’s? I also don’t have many photos of Tin City at Restone. I understand that’s all gone, too. My wife still still keeps in touch w/ a German National she met back then when we lived in Rottendorf, behind the Gasthaus Kirschbaum.

      • I was never in Germany, I’m Patriot myself. HAWK and NIKE are forever a part of Fort Bliss.

      • Bob,
        I arrived at the DSP in Jan ’73. Left in ’76 headed back to Redstone for the final time. I’ll have to look around to see if we have any pictures from that time of the DSP. I know we have of the housing area at Leighton Barracks and on ski trips we took to Garmisch (every chance we got). I’ll see what I can find.

        @choclblock – “HAWK and NIKE are forever a part of Fort Bliss.” Yeah if you were a “site flog” :)

    • Randy Hill Says:

      Don, I belive we went thru 23T20 school together. The last time we spoke I lived in Las Vegas. I now live in Missouri.. It’s time to re connect!
      Randy Hill

  10. Patriot and THAAD continue the tradition gentlemen. I’ve been at TABLE VIII certifications on more weekends than I care to count. I had to miss several holidays and two birthdays due to training. At least we can use our cell phones after dinner chow.

  11. Mike Ferguson Says:

    Started Hawk Pulse Radar School at Fort Bliss in December 1967 and graduated in September 1968 (started as a 23P which was changed to 24F before graduation). Was somehow lucky enough to be assigned to the Redstone Arsenal School Command as an instructor and in November 1969 received orders for Germany. Arrived in Germany on January 1, 1970 and was assigned to B/6/52 in Kitzingen. Finished my Army time in September 1970.

  12. Mike okeeffe Says:

    I returned to Wurzburg last year after 40 hrs. I was in HOS 5 in 1961 atEmery kaserne, which is now a DP camp for illegal immigrants. The old A btry site is a sports airfield , with no traces of us. LT Mike O’Keeffe mikeokeeffe@tds.net

    • Ken Braget Says:

      I was at Camp Pieri, 515th Ord GS from 61-63 CW and Instrument calibration. Were you there?

    • I was in Wertheim in 61-63 and visited the old TAC site last July. I had so much fun meeting new people I am going back this year for a longer stay. I presume you were with Hq Btry with the 6th 52nd 32 Brig.

  13. Joseph P. Phoebus, Jr. Says:

    I was trained @ Fort Bliss operation & intelligence I believe 15H or 16H. Arrived 1/1965 Ansbach. Ger. 4/57th, reported for duty Katterbach, Ger. BOC. I was trained by E-7 Sgt Brignal. I returned to the states in 1/67. I have picture of the people I served with, and would to put them on a site for 4/57th. I find very little info & would see if there’s a responce.

    • Don Smith Says:

      Air Defense Intelligence and Operations Sgt. was 15H40. Was my secondary MOS when i took the test with no school or experience and screwed up and passed :) I filled an Intelligence and Ops slot at TUSALOG ( 3rd Army Support and Logistics Group ) at Homestead AFB so some bright personnel flog decided I should have a 15H MOS. Never served in a slot though, thank God.

    • nelson (barney) bliss Says:

      i was station to this unit in 1964=66. would like to see phots,etc.

      • Randolph Smith Says:

        I wouldlove to see picsof all the old HAWK sites from Germany (including all the batteries) from 1/1, 2/2, 2/62 3/59. 3/60, 2/57, 6/52 and more of 3/7 I was at A Btry 3/7 ADA from late March 1982 to late May 1984

  14. josef Wiesner Says:

    Hi All, does any one knows wher I can get the maintenance manuall of the PAR of the Basic Hawk System ?

  15. I was trianed at Ft. Bliss as a 24B HIPIR in the tear 1973 Then was staitoned to Korea A Btry 1st Batt. 44th ADA until 1974, then Key West, Then back to Ft. Bliss as school support until 1978. I was able to work on IHAWK as well but recieved no training. Mike

  16. Marc Melendez Says:

    Pictures of the soldiers of b btry 2bn 2ada bgde on facebook-bravo 2/2

    • Randolph Smith Says:

      Hey dude, were you at B Btry 2/2 when it was IHAWK in Germany, I knew a few guys who were stationed there?

      • Earl Ennis Says:

        I was assigned to B 2/2 in bad Hersfeld, 1982-1983 I worked in the motor pool.

      • I was at A Btry 3/7 ADA in Schweinfurt as a 16E from April 1982 to late May of 1984, I PCS,d from B Btry 2/55 at Ft Bliss I knew a SGT Adkins a 16E who came to A Btry in early JAN of 1984 from Ft Lewis, he was at B 2/2 in Bad Hersfeld prior to going to Ft Lewis, I saw an old google earth [hoto of B 2/2 site, man it looks like it was way up there on a hill A 3/7 TACsite was right on the Kaserne you could actually walk to it

      • Albert L Wallace Says:

        what battery were you in i was in A-3/60 16/d 20 from 1971-1973

      • earl jaynes Says:

        I was motor Sgt. 1968 jaynes

  17. I went thru Basic & AIT in June 1980 thru E-3-1 at Ft Bliss, Tx I was originally a 24E but dropped the course in late 1980 and went to B Btry 2/55 ADA in JAN 1981 as a 16E, then PCS,d in March 1982 to A Btry 3/7 ADA in Germany where I stayed until late May 1984,upon ETS. I later re-enterd active duty as a grunt in JAN 1986 to DEC1988 but my favorite time was HAWK

    • I trained at Ft. Bliss on the hill for Basic and AIT. Then ended up at B 2/55 ADA for my first unit from there went to HHB 1st Training Battalion on the hill at Operation Santa Claus and then onto C 3/7 ADA after 2/55 was deactivated. 3/7 was deactivated while I was in Bamberg, Germany (we were the only ADA unit at Warner Kassern in Bamberg.) After 3/7 was deactivated we were attached to 3/60 ADA and were designated Delta Battery 3/60 ADA until our unit was permanently deactivated. Ended up doing reserve time in US and got to spend some time in the armpit known as Panama and some other Central American countries during our shootout with them. Best times were definitely in Germany.

      • I can relate to Panama, after I ETS,d in late May of 1984, I re-joined the Army in January of 1986 as an 11B, I went to Ft. Benning, GA for Infantry training then Jump school, I went to Ft. Bragg N.C for a while after finishing , but I ended my Jump status at Ft. Bragg and go sent to 25th I.D Schofield Barracks, HI (I hated it) I did deploy to other countries such as Australia, Panama, Korea and also Alasla for training, I can tell you this, I would have rather been stationed in Wildflecken, Germany any day of the week & twice on Sunday over Hawaii

      • Funny how you run into people when you are stationed all over the place. At Ft. Bliss I ran into a guy I played football with in High School. He was waiting to go to WO school so he could enter the Apache program. One of our other friends was also in his unit and he had already left of Warrant officer’s school. One of the 16E NCO’s in Ft. Bliss in my platoon was a guy I had played football against in high school. My brother was in the navy and he was on shore leave in Japan and just walking down the street in Japan he ran into a guy I graduated with. When I was in Panama I ran into a guy I was in Ft. Bliss with and he ended up having an accident but it was some minor stuff and got sent home for recovery and he ended up living about 20 miles from me now. You really can make some life long friends in the service.

      • RRSmith Says:

        Hey Chris, you must have come to 2/55 sometime after I had left B 2/55 to go to Germany, I was originally a 24E but dropped the course in mid NOV of 1980, I was sent to B Btry 2/55 as a 16E in January of 1981, CPT Romancik was the Btry cdr & we had 1SG Wheatley, he was allright, CPT Mangianello took over as BCin May of that year and 2 months after 2/55 recieved a pain in the ass BN cdr LTC Irvin S. Butler, not too many days go by when I don,t reminisce about the days of Germany, even to this very day paisan

  18. 1SG (ret) Jose A. Garcia Says:

    I trained with A-6-61 @ bliss in 1961 just out inantry AIT. The entire BN deployed to Freising Ger on the USS Geiger. We setup at a place called site 31. I left A Btry in 1964. Any one out there still above dirt? I would like to hear from anyone of that time 1961-64. After 21 yrs I retired at Bliss.
    I still visit the tng areas were we trained as a unit on Bliss, Mcgregor, Oro grande. The barracks that I called home still standing…course now they look like hotels with sat dishes all over (LOL)
    Jose A. garcia

    • Randolph Smith Says:

      Awesome, kind of wished I lived in El Paso, I always thought McGregor Range was neat, there,s not too many days when I don,t think of the days of IHAWK whether I was stationed at Ft. Bliss or Germany, to be honest top, the 2nd time I was in from JAN 1986 to DEC 1988 as an 11B, I was after the High speed low drag training at Ft Benning but ende my jump status and got sent to 25th I.D Schofield Brks HI. Top I tell you this in all sincerity I would have rather been stationed in Wildflecken, Germany rather than Hawaii any day of the week & twice on Sunday

    • Looking for Bliss trained Battery C 6th Missle BN 62 Arty who served with William (Billy) Aynes in Bliss the Germany until 1965

    • Ken Braget Says:

      I was at Camp Pieri 61-63 cw repair.

  19. Thanks for the comments guys, those of us in Patriot land are keeping up the tradition. Sadly SHORAD is fading away. Thanks for sharing.

  20. larry@gloryroad.net Says:

    I was on a IHAWK site (A 2/2) on the Hohe Warte near Geissen from June 76 til COctober 78. My MOS was 24C20 (HAWK Firing Section Mechanic ). I mostly worked on the IHIPIR and Launchers. Really miss those days

  21. 1SG (Ret) Garcia Says:

    Japan still conduct HAWK ASP @ Mcgregor. The US army has contractors to support it.
    Jose

  22. Allen Ingram Says:

    I recieved my training at, Ft Bliss, El Paso Tx. Served in A 1/1 Bad Kissegen Germany. Many great memeories there. I am saddened by the demelation of Dailey Barracks. Was my home for many years. 1978 to 1982

    • Randolph Smith Says:

      I hear you buddy, I was A Btry 3/7 ADA from late March 1982 to late May 1984. I understand Conn & Ledward Barracks will be closed in 2015, depressing.

  23. 1SG (Ret) Garcia Says:

    what happened to 6-61 after germany I lost track. I was the best MLS loader operator in 6-61…(LOL) we wore the 7 army Pacth then. I also served in nam w/ 6-56 (Hawk) 1965, before the Army find out I have an infantry SMOS and send me to 1Cav div.
    GOD bless all ADA specially the Hawkers.
    Jose
    61 Motto.

    ” “Non Est Ad Astra Mollis E Terris Via” (The Way To the Stars Is
    Not Easy)

  24. I was stationed in Wildflecken 1977-1980 as a radar repair tech 24K. I/1 ADA DSP. I could write a book about all the good and BAD times I had there. The Rod & Gun Club, the Monastery, eating pizza from the little town, partying at the clubs, curfew. Mogas.
    Headstart. Riding trains. So much Snow and unbearable cold.
    Living in Bldg 151 was like an animal house. Learned terms like
    FTA, short timer, The World, Reforger, Alerts, Deuce & a half, Octoberfest ect …
    If you were there you know, and there’s so much more. I arrived
    as a young naive boy, and left changed forever. I think I still have PTSD. Lol. But looking back, Germany was beautiful. I would love to go back someday. If anybody remembers me – give me a shout out!!!

    • I don,t remember, I was a 16E A Btry 3/7 ADA in Schweinfurt from late March of 1982 to late May of 1984, I,ve been to Wildflecken training area and have seen B 1/1 TAC site, I was the same way I left Germany with a different outlook on things but I did enjoy myself very much while I was there, I came back into the Army in JAN of 1986 as an 11B (Airborne) After Ft. Benning I was @ Ft Bragg, I ended my jump status anf got sent to 25th I.D atSchofield Barracks, HI(I hated it) I would have rather been stationed in Wildflecken, Germany than Hawaii any day of the week & twice on Sunday

  25. i trained on the system at bliss in the spring of 83…i loved it….

  26. If anybody was on the hill in 83 at bliss..im james hoyt…private hurt hoyt…i was platoon guide for charley battery ssgt simmons and becknell…anybody know me or remember this time contact me at jspmfr@gmail.com

  27. Sgt Rod ( Juan V. Rodriguez Says:

    Joined the service sep 11 1979 at Puerto Rico. Received training as 16 D hawk msle crew member. Got holdover for not speaking english had to learn english first before becoming a 16D. It was really hard for me and my puertorrican friends but we made it. My first station Ft bragg 3/68 ada b btry where i spend 2 years with the rapid deployment force 18 airborne corps. Sent to Germany dec1981 to cbtry 2/62 went to fire twice to namfi crete one time as a crewmember the second as a crew chief. My next station Ft Lewis wa. B btry 1/4, was chosen to conduct live fire exercise at chulmae range korea then the next year live fire at ft Bliss. After that hawk was phased out the army. There were no positions for me in ADA.Was sent to recruiting school but i did not liked and got out in nov 1987 I will always feel proud to served as a hawk missile crew member.hope you understand my english writing. Miss ADA.

    • Sgt. Rodriguez,

      I am from Puerto Rico and I was stationed in C/2/62 ADA in Hisel Germany from 73-75. I just went back there on vacation and took a lot of photos of the barracks area and the tac site – no longer active and run by a German solar device company. Get in touch if you would like to see some of the pics.

  28. denny hubbard Says:

    took my training at fort bliss in 1968 surved in germany 69 70 3rd and 7th switchfrrt e 5

    • Jose A. Garcia Says:

      DO I know you from Bliss ADA training Bde AIT Instructor? I trained as HAWK package @ Bliss 1961 after Inf AIT, with A-6-61. Bn deployed to Germany late 1961. Hawk site 31. Left Germany 1964. Went to Panama D-4-517 ADA. Nam 1965-66 with 6/56 after 5 months I volunteer for the 1 Cav Div (Airmobile) (An Khe) as 11B, got my CIB and went back to ADA . Bliss ADA Bde Instructor. Nam 1968-69 with A-1-44 Dusters attached to 3Mar Div (Dong Ha) After Hawk I trained with DUSTE/QUAD .50s, C/V, Redeye, Stinger, Hercules, and Patriot. Retired 1982 @ Bliss. After that, I worked as Army civilian Weapons training Spec from 1984-2010.
      I will l would like to hear from any ADA Vet.
      GOD Bless our military and GOD bless America.
      Jose

  29. Does anyone remember the names of the AIT instructors in Fort Bliss, Texas? I was there right after basic i n February of 1984. There were three of them..???

  30. Bob Trout Says:

    I took 16D training at Fort Bliss in 1975. First duty station was B 2/55. Reenlisted for Korea and was in C 1/44 from 1977 – 1979. I was in B 1/1 Wildflecken Ger. from 80 – 83. Last duty assignment was Fort Lewis, WA. Retired in 1994 as a 16D. Life as a Hawker was a great adventure, one that I look back on fondly.

  31. Jerry Dkes Says:

    Reading all of these makes me proud to have served 7 years as a 24B30, CW Radar Maintenance. I went through school in ’69 at Bliss, overseas to Germany, A-4-57 in Ansbach. Left Ansbach for Homestead AFB and was stationed in A, HHB, and C-3-68 from Feb’73 to Dec’76. I remember lots of cold nights on the hill when we were in State 1, and one of the HIPIRs would go down. Seems like they only broke at night. I do remember fondly living on the economy, had some great landlords. Good times, Good food, Good Friends and Good memories.

  32. Jose B Reyes Says:

    I was trained at Ft. Bliss as a 16E Mar71 and was assigned to HHB 6/65th ADA. We were an element for the unit that was stationed at Keywest, Fl. I was transferred to S.Korea and assigned to B 2/71 ADA, from Oct 71- Nov 72. Great times in S. Korea. On my return to the states I was fortunate to get reassigned to Ft. Bliss, A 2/55. We were Honor Battery in 1973 after the ASP. I left active duty Dec 1974. HAWK time was a great!!!

  33. after hawk package training w/ A-6-61@ bliss went to Freising Germany. Hawk site 31. from 1961-1964. I worked @ the Missile assembly section. My section chief was SFC Adamson, an 2nd Ranger Bn survivor from WW2. I cant find anyone from that unit anymore.

  34. Began Basic in Bliss in June of 1980. Was a 24C in Hohenfels Germany from 81-83 in 2/57. Finished out in 1/4 at Ft. Lewis from 83-84. 1/4 ADA is still active as some kind of ICBM intercept outfit. The old barracks at Tac site still survive in Hohenfels, but the Logan Heights traning facility at Ft. Bliss is now a housing development. The temporary WW2 barracks at North Ft. Lewis that housed the old Hawk folks are gone as well. — Life is better now that I don’t have to crawl in sand pits or get up in the middle of the night to work on a frozen launcher or HI-Power.

    • Callahan,
      I was a 24B in Alpha Battery, 4/57,2/57 in Ansbach from Jan70-Dec-73. Been to Hohenfels several times on Parts Run. I remember those frozen nights on the HiPIR. Usually couldn’t get it to go into Radiate from Standby

      • albert l wallace Says:

        A/battery 3-60 Graf. 16d20 1971- 1973 crewcheif self propelled many a cold night on that tact site

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